Microsoft Sentinel Analytic Rules
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Palo Alto - potential beaconing detected

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Idf0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb
RulenamePalo Alto - potential beaconing detected
DescriptionIdentifies beaconing patterns from Palo Alto Network traffic logs based on recurrent timedelta patterns.

The query leverages various KQL functions to calculate time deltas and then compares it with total events observed in a day to find percentage of beaconing.

This outbound beaconing pattern to untrusted public networks should be investigated for any malware callbacks or data exfiltration attempts.

Reference Blog:

http://www.austintaylor.io/detect/beaconing/intrusion/detection/system/command/control/flare/elastic/stack/2017/06/10/detect-beaconing-with-flare-elasticsearch-and-intrusion-detection-systems/

https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/microsoft-sentinel-blog/detect-network-beaconing-via-intra-request-time-delta-patterns/ba-p/779586
SeverityLow
TacticsCommandAndControl
TechniquesT1071
T1571
Required data connectorsPaloAltoNetworks
PaloAltoNetworksAma
KindScheduled
Query frequency1d
Query period2d
Trigger threshold0
Trigger operatorgt
Source Urihttps://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/PaloAlto-PAN-OS/Analytic Rules/PaloAlto-NetworkBeaconing.yaml
Version1.0.3
Arm templatef0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb.json
Deploy To Azure
let starttime = 2d;
let endtime = 1d;
let TimeDeltaThreshold = 25;
let TotalEventsThreshold = 30;
let MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold = 25;
let PercentBeaconThreshold = 80;
CommonSecurityLog
| where DeviceVendor == "Palo Alto Networks" and Activity == "TRAFFIC"
| where TimeGenerated between (startofday(ago(starttime))..startofday(ago(endtime)))
| where ipv4_is_private(DestinationIP)== false
| project TimeGenerated, DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, SourcePort, DestinationIP, DestinationPort, ReceivedBytes, SentBytes
| sort by SourceIP asc,TimeGenerated asc, DestinationIP asc, DestinationPort asc
| serialize
| extend nextTimeGenerated = next(TimeGenerated, 1), nextSourceIP = next(SourceIP, 1)
| extend TimeDeltainSeconds = datetime_diff('second',nextTimeGenerated,TimeGenerated)
| where SourceIP == nextSourceIP
//Whitelisting criteria/ threshold criteria
| where TimeDeltainSeconds > TimeDeltaThreshold
| summarize count(), sum(ReceivedBytes), sum(SentBytes)
by TimeDeltainSeconds, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort
| summarize (MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount, MostFrequentTimeDeltainSeconds) = arg_max(count_, TimeDeltainSeconds), TotalEvents=sum(count_), TotalSentBytes = sum(sum_SentBytes), TotalReceivedBytes = sum(sum_ReceivedBytes)
by bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort
| where TotalEvents > TotalEventsThreshold and MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount > MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold
| extend BeaconPercent = MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount/toreal(TotalEvents) * 100
| where BeaconPercent > PercentBeaconThreshold
| extend timestamp = TimeGenerated, IPCustomEntity = DestinationIP, AccountCustomEntity = SourceUserID, HostCustomEntity = DeviceName
status: Available
id: f0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb
name: Palo Alto - potential beaconing detected
requiredDataConnectors:
- connectorId: PaloAltoNetworks
  dataTypes:
  - CommonSecurityLog
- connectorId: PaloAltoNetworksAma
  dataTypes:
  - CommonSecurityLog
severity: Low
triggerThreshold: 0
OriginalUri: https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/PaloAlto-PAN-OS/Analytic Rules/PaloAlto-NetworkBeaconing.yaml
kind: Scheduled
description: |
  'Identifies beaconing patterns from Palo Alto Network traffic logs based on recurrent timedelta patterns.
  The query leverages various KQL functions to calculate time deltas and then compares it with total events observed in a day to find percentage of beaconing.
  This outbound beaconing pattern to untrusted public networks should be investigated for any malware callbacks or data exfiltration attempts.
  Reference Blog:
  http://www.austintaylor.io/detect/beaconing/intrusion/detection/system/command/control/flare/elastic/stack/2017/06/10/detect-beaconing-with-flare-elasticsearch-and-intrusion-detection-systems/
  https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/microsoft-sentinel-blog/detect-network-beaconing-via-intra-request-time-delta-patterns/ba-p/779586'  
relevantTechniques:
- T1071
- T1571
queryPeriod: 2d
triggerOperator: gt
queryFrequency: 1d
query: |
  let starttime = 2d;
  let endtime = 1d;
  let TimeDeltaThreshold = 25;
  let TotalEventsThreshold = 30;
  let MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold = 25;
  let PercentBeaconThreshold = 80;
  CommonSecurityLog
  | where DeviceVendor == "Palo Alto Networks" and Activity == "TRAFFIC"
  | where TimeGenerated between (startofday(ago(starttime))..startofday(ago(endtime)))
  | where ipv4_is_private(DestinationIP)== false
  | project TimeGenerated, DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, SourcePort, DestinationIP, DestinationPort, ReceivedBytes, SentBytes
  | sort by SourceIP asc,TimeGenerated asc, DestinationIP asc, DestinationPort asc
  | serialize
  | extend nextTimeGenerated = next(TimeGenerated, 1), nextSourceIP = next(SourceIP, 1)
  | extend TimeDeltainSeconds = datetime_diff('second',nextTimeGenerated,TimeGenerated)
  | where SourceIP == nextSourceIP
  //Whitelisting criteria/ threshold criteria
  | where TimeDeltainSeconds > TimeDeltaThreshold
  | summarize count(), sum(ReceivedBytes), sum(SentBytes)
  by TimeDeltainSeconds, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort
  | summarize (MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount, MostFrequentTimeDeltainSeconds) = arg_max(count_, TimeDeltainSeconds), TotalEvents=sum(count_), TotalSentBytes = sum(sum_SentBytes), TotalReceivedBytes = sum(sum_ReceivedBytes)
  by bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort
  | where TotalEvents > TotalEventsThreshold and MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount > MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold
  | extend BeaconPercent = MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount/toreal(TotalEvents) * 100
  | where BeaconPercent > PercentBeaconThreshold
  | extend timestamp = TimeGenerated, IPCustomEntity = DestinationIP, AccountCustomEntity = SourceUserID, HostCustomEntity = DeviceName  
version: 1.0.3
tactics:
- CommandAndControl
entityMappings:
- fieldMappings:
  - identifier: FullName
    columnName: AccountCustomEntity
  entityType: Account
- fieldMappings:
  - identifier: FullName
    columnName: HostCustomEntity
  entityType: Host
- fieldMappings:
  - identifier: Address
    columnName: IPCustomEntity
  entityType: IP
{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2019-04-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
    "workspace": {
      "type": "String"
    }
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "apiVersion": "2023-02-01-preview",
      "id": "[concat(resourceId('Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers', parameters('workspace'), 'Microsoft.SecurityInsights'),'/alertRules/f0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb')]",
      "kind": "Scheduled",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('workspace'),'/Microsoft.SecurityInsights/f0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb')]",
      "properties": {
        "alertRuleTemplateName": "f0be259a-34ac-4946-aa15-ca2b115d5feb",
        "customDetails": null,
        "description": "'Identifies beaconing patterns from Palo Alto Network traffic logs based on recurrent timedelta patterns.\nThe query leverages various KQL functions to calculate time deltas and then compares it with total events observed in a day to find percentage of beaconing.\nThis outbound beaconing pattern to untrusted public networks should be investigated for any malware callbacks or data exfiltration attempts.\nReference Blog:\nhttp://www.austintaylor.io/detect/beaconing/intrusion/detection/system/command/control/flare/elastic/stack/2017/06/10/detect-beaconing-with-flare-elasticsearch-and-intrusion-detection-systems/\nhttps://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/microsoft-sentinel-blog/detect-network-beaconing-via-intra-request-time-delta-patterns/ba-p/779586'\n",
        "displayName": "Palo Alto - potential beaconing detected",
        "enabled": true,
        "entityMappings": [
          {
            "entityType": "Account",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "AccountCustomEntity",
                "identifier": "FullName"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "entityType": "Host",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "HostCustomEntity",
                "identifier": "FullName"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "entityType": "IP",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "IPCustomEntity",
                "identifier": "Address"
              }
            ]
          }
        ],
        "OriginalUri": "https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/PaloAlto-PAN-OS/Analytic Rules/PaloAlto-NetworkBeaconing.yaml",
        "query": "let starttime = 2d;\nlet endtime = 1d;\nlet TimeDeltaThreshold = 25;\nlet TotalEventsThreshold = 30;\nlet MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold = 25;\nlet PercentBeaconThreshold = 80;\nCommonSecurityLog\n| where DeviceVendor == \"Palo Alto Networks\" and Activity == \"TRAFFIC\"\n| where TimeGenerated between (startofday(ago(starttime))..startofday(ago(endtime)))\n| where ipv4_is_private(DestinationIP)== false\n| project TimeGenerated, DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, SourcePort, DestinationIP, DestinationPort, ReceivedBytes, SentBytes\n| sort by SourceIP asc,TimeGenerated asc, DestinationIP asc, DestinationPort asc\n| serialize\n| extend nextTimeGenerated = next(TimeGenerated, 1), nextSourceIP = next(SourceIP, 1)\n| extend TimeDeltainSeconds = datetime_diff('second',nextTimeGenerated,TimeGenerated)\n| where SourceIP == nextSourceIP\n//Whitelisting criteria/ threshold criteria\n| where TimeDeltainSeconds > TimeDeltaThreshold\n| summarize count(), sum(ReceivedBytes), sum(SentBytes)\nby TimeDeltainSeconds, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort\n| summarize (MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount, MostFrequentTimeDeltainSeconds) = arg_max(count_, TimeDeltainSeconds), TotalEvents=sum(count_), TotalSentBytes = sum(sum_SentBytes), TotalReceivedBytes = sum(sum_ReceivedBytes)\nby bin(TimeGenerated, 1h), DeviceName, SourceUserID, SourceIP, DestinationIP, DestinationPort\n| where TotalEvents > TotalEventsThreshold and MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount > MostFrequentTimeDeltaThreshold\n| extend BeaconPercent = MostFrequentTimeDeltaCount/toreal(TotalEvents) * 100\n| where BeaconPercent > PercentBeaconThreshold\n| extend timestamp = TimeGenerated, IPCustomEntity = DestinationIP, AccountCustomEntity = SourceUserID, HostCustomEntity = DeviceName\n",
        "queryFrequency": "P1D",
        "queryPeriod": "P2D",
        "severity": "Low",
        "status": "Available",
        "suppressionDuration": "PT1H",
        "suppressionEnabled": false,
        "tactics": [
          "CommandAndControl"
        ],
        "techniques": [
          "T1071",
          "T1571"
        ],
        "templateVersion": "1.0.3",
        "triggerOperator": "GreaterThan",
        "triggerThreshold": 0
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers/alertRules"
    }
  ]
}