Microsoft Sentinel Analytic Rules
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RDP Nesting

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Id69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39
RulenameRDP Nesting
DescriptionIdentifies when an RDP connection is made to a first system and then an RDP connection is made from the first system to another system with the same account within 60 minutes.

Connection counts of 5 or more to the same computer set from the same account are excluded.

RDP connections are indicated by the logged EventID 4624 with LogonType = 10.
SeverityMedium
TacticsLateralMovement
TechniquesT1021
Required data connectorsSecurityEvents
WindowsForwardedEvents
WindowsSecurityEvents
KindScheduled
Query frequency1d
Query period8d
Trigger threshold0
Trigger operatorgt
Source Urihttps://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Detections/SecurityEvent/RDP_Nesting.yaml
Version1.2.6
Arm template69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39.json
Deploy To Azure
let endtime = 1d;
let starttime = 8d;
// The threshold below excludes matching on RDP connection computer counts of 5 or more by a given account and IP in a given day.  Change the threshold as needed.
let threshold = 5;
(union isfuzzy=true
(SecurityEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
// Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip
| extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
),
( WindowsEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
| extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)
| where  LogonType == 10  // Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip
| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
| extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
))
| join kind=inner (
(union isfuzzy=true
(SecurityEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
// Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip
| extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
),
(WindowsEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
| extend LogonType = toint(EventData.LogonType)
| where  LogonType == 10   // Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip
| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
| extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
))
) on Account
// Make sure that the first connection is after the second connection --> SecondHop > FirstHop
// Then identify only RDP to another computer from within the first RDP connection by only choosing matches where the Computer names do not match --> FirstComputer != SecondComputer
// Then make sure the IPAddresses do not match by excluding connections from the same computers with first hop RDP connections to multiple computers --> FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress
| where FirstComputer != SecondComputer and FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress and SecondHop > FirstHop
// where the second hop occurs within 30 minutes of the first hop
| where SecondHop <= FirstHop+30m
| distinct Account, FirstHop, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer, SecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName
// use left anti to exclude anything from the previous 7 days where the Account and IP has connected 5 or more computers.
| join kind=leftanti (
(union isfuzzy=true
(SecurityEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
| summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress
// Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day
| where ComputerCount >= threshold
| mvexpand set_Computer
| extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)
),
(WindowsEvent
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)
| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
| extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)
| where  LogonType == 10
| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
| summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress
// Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day
| where ComputerCount >= threshold
| mvexpand set_Computer
| extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)
))
) on Account, $left.SecondComputer == $right.Computer, $left.SecondIPAddress == $right.IpAddress
| summarize FirstHopFirstSeen = min(FirstHop), FirstHopLastSeen = max(FirstHop) by Account, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer,
SecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName
| extend AccountName = tostring(split(Account, @"\")[1]), AccountNTDomain = tostring(split(Account, @"\")[0])
| extend HostName1 = tostring(split(FirstComputer, ".")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(FirstComputer, '.'))
| extend HostNameDomain1 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(FirstComputer, DomainIndex + 1), FirstComputer)
| extend HostName2 = tostring(split(SecondComputer, ".")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(SecondComputer, '.'))
| extend HostNameDomain2 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(SecondComputer, DomainIndex + 1), SecondComputer)
| project-away DomainIndex
triggerOperator: gt
tactics:
- LateralMovement
queryPeriod: 8d
kind: Scheduled
relevantTechniques:
- T1021
OriginalUri: https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Detections/SecurityEvent/RDP_Nesting.yaml
queryFrequency: 1d
description: |
  'Identifies when an RDP connection is made to a first system and then an RDP connection is made from the first system to another system with the same account within 60 minutes.
  Connection counts of 5 or more to the same computer set from the same account are excluded.
  RDP connections are indicated by the logged EventID 4624 with LogonType = 10.'  
requiredDataConnectors:
- dataTypes:
  - SecurityEvent
  connectorId: SecurityEvents
- dataTypes:
  - SecurityEvent
  connectorId: WindowsSecurityEvents
- dataTypes:
  - WindowsEvent
  connectorId: WindowsForwardedEvents
version: 1.2.6
triggerThreshold: 0
severity: Medium
metadata:
  author:
    name: Microsoft Security Research
  categories:
    domains:
    - Security - Threat Protection
  source:
    kind: Community
  support:
    tier: Community
id: 69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39
entityMappings:
- entityType: Account
  fieldMappings:
  - columnName: Account
    identifier: FullName
  - columnName: AccountName
    identifier: Name
  - columnName: AccountNTDomain
    identifier: NTDomain
- entityType: Host
  fieldMappings:
  - columnName: FirstComputer
    identifier: FullName
  - columnName: HostName1
    identifier: HostName
  - columnName: HostNameDomain1
    identifier: NTDomain
- entityType: Host
  fieldMappings:
  - columnName: SecondComputer
    identifier: FullName
  - columnName: HostName2
    identifier: HostName
  - columnName: HostNameDomain2
    identifier: NTDomain
- entityType: IP
  fieldMappings:
  - columnName: FirstIPAddress
    identifier: Address
name: RDP Nesting
query: |
  let endtime = 1d;
  let starttime = 8d;
  // The threshold below excludes matching on RDP connection computer counts of 5 or more by a given account and IP in a given day.  Change the threshold as needed.
  let threshold = 5;
  (union isfuzzy=true
  (SecurityEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
  // Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip
  | extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
  ),
  ( WindowsEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
  | extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)
  | where  LogonType == 10  // Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip
  | extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
  | extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
  | extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
  ))
  | join kind=inner (
  (union isfuzzy=true
  (SecurityEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
  // Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip
  | extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
  ),
  (WindowsEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
  | extend LogonType = toint(EventData.LogonType)
  | where  LogonType == 10   // Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip
  | extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
  | extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
  | extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)
  ))
  ) on Account
  // Make sure that the first connection is after the second connection --> SecondHop > FirstHop
  // Then identify only RDP to another computer from within the first RDP connection by only choosing matches where the Computer names do not match --> FirstComputer != SecondComputer
  // Then make sure the IPAddresses do not match by excluding connections from the same computers with first hop RDP connections to multiple computers --> FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress
  | where FirstComputer != SecondComputer and FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress and SecondHop > FirstHop
  // where the second hop occurs within 30 minutes of the first hop
  | where SecondHop <= FirstHop+30m
  | distinct Account, FirstHop, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer, SecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName
  // use left anti to exclude anything from the previous 7 days where the Account and IP has connected 5 or more computers.
  | join kind=leftanti (
  (union isfuzzy=true
  (SecurityEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10
  | summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress
  // Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day
  | where ComputerCount >= threshold
  | mvexpand set_Computer
  | extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)
  ),
  (WindowsEvent
  | where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)
  | where EventID == 4624 and EventData has ("10")
  | extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)
  | where  LogonType == 10
  | extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),"\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))
  | extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)
  | summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress
  // Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day
  | where ComputerCount >= threshold
  | mvexpand set_Computer
  | extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)
  ))
  ) on Account, $left.SecondComputer == $right.Computer, $left.SecondIPAddress == $right.IpAddress
  | summarize FirstHopFirstSeen = min(FirstHop), FirstHopLastSeen = max(FirstHop) by Account, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer,
  SecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName
  | extend AccountName = tostring(split(Account, @"\")[1]), AccountNTDomain = tostring(split(Account, @"\")[0])
  | extend HostName1 = tostring(split(FirstComputer, ".")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(FirstComputer, '.'))
  | extend HostNameDomain1 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(FirstComputer, DomainIndex + 1), FirstComputer)
  | extend HostName2 = tostring(split(SecondComputer, ".")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(SecondComputer, '.'))
  | extend HostNameDomain2 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(SecondComputer, DomainIndex + 1), SecondComputer)
  | project-away DomainIndex  
{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2019-04-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
    "workspace": {
      "type": "String"
    }
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "apiVersion": "2023-02-01-preview",
      "id": "[concat(resourceId('Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers', parameters('workspace'), 'Microsoft.SecurityInsights'),'/alertRules/69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39')]",
      "kind": "Scheduled",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('workspace'),'/Microsoft.SecurityInsights/69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39')]",
      "properties": {
        "alertRuleTemplateName": "69a45b05-71f5-45ca-8944-2e038747fb39",
        "customDetails": null,
        "description": "'Identifies when an RDP connection is made to a first system and then an RDP connection is made from the first system to another system with the same account within 60 minutes.\nConnection counts of 5 or more to the same computer set from the same account are excluded.\nRDP connections are indicated by the logged EventID 4624 with LogonType = 10.'\n",
        "displayName": "RDP Nesting",
        "enabled": true,
        "entityMappings": [
          {
            "entityType": "Account",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "Account",
                "identifier": "FullName"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "AccountName",
                "identifier": "Name"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "AccountNTDomain",
                "identifier": "NTDomain"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "entityType": "Host",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "FirstComputer",
                "identifier": "FullName"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "HostName1",
                "identifier": "HostName"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "HostNameDomain1",
                "identifier": "NTDomain"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "entityType": "Host",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "SecondComputer",
                "identifier": "FullName"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "HostName2",
                "identifier": "HostName"
              },
              {
                "columnName": "HostNameDomain2",
                "identifier": "NTDomain"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "entityType": "IP",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "FirstIPAddress",
                "identifier": "Address"
              }
            ]
          }
        ],
        "OriginalUri": "https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Detections/SecurityEvent/RDP_Nesting.yaml",
        "query": "let endtime = 1d;\nlet starttime = 8d;\n// The threshold below excludes matching on RDP connection computer counts of 5 or more by a given account and IP in a given day.  Change the threshold as needed.\nlet threshold = 5;\n(union isfuzzy=true\n(SecurityEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10\n// Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip\n| extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)\n),\n( WindowsEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has (\"10\")\n| extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)\n| where  LogonType == 10  // Labeling the first RDP connection time, computer and ip\n| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),\"\\\\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))\n| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)\n| extend FirstHop = TimeGenerated, FirstComputer = toupper(Computer), FirstIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)\n))\n| join kind=inner (\n(union isfuzzy=true\n(SecurityEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10\n// Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip\n| extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)\n),\n(WindowsEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has (\"10\")\n| extend LogonType = toint(EventData.LogonType)\n| where  LogonType == 10   // Labeling the second RDP connection time, computer and ip\n| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),\"\\\\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))\n| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)\n| extend SecondHop = TimeGenerated, SecondComputer = toupper(Computer), SecondIPAddress = IpAddress, Account = tolower(Account)\n))\n) on Account\n// Make sure that the first connection is after the second connection --> SecondHop > FirstHop\n// Then identify only RDP to another computer from within the first RDP connection by only choosing matches where the Computer names do not match --> FirstComputer != SecondComputer\n// Then make sure the IPAddresses do not match by excluding connections from the same computers with first hop RDP connections to multiple computers --> FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress\n| where FirstComputer != SecondComputer and FirstIPAddress != SecondIPAddress and SecondHop > FirstHop\n// where the second hop occurs within 30 minutes of the first hop\n| where SecondHop <= FirstHop+30m\n| distinct Account, FirstHop, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer, SecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName\n// use left anti to exclude anything from the previous 7 days where the Account and IP has connected 5 or more computers.\n| join kind=leftanti (\n(union isfuzzy=true\n(SecurityEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and LogonType == 10\n| summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress\n// Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day\n| where ComputerCount >= threshold\n| mvexpand set_Computer\n| extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)\n),\n(WindowsEvent\n| where TimeGenerated >= ago(starttime) and TimeGenerated < ago(endtime)\n| where EventID == 4624 and EventData has (\"10\")\n| extend LogonType = tostring(EventData.LogonType)\n| where  LogonType == 10\n| extend Account = strcat(tostring(EventData.TargetDomainName),\"\\\\\", tostring(EventData.TargetUserName))\n| extend IpAddress = tostring(EventData.IpAddress)\n| summarize makeset(Computer), ComputerCount = dcount(Computer) by bin(TimeGenerated, 1d), Account = tolower(Account), IpAddress\n// Connection count to computer by same account and IP to exclude counts of 5 or more on a given day\n| where ComputerCount >= threshold\n| mvexpand set_Computer\n| extend Computer = toupper(set_Computer)\n))\n) on Account, $left.SecondComputer == $right.Computer, $left.SecondIPAddress == $right.IpAddress\n| summarize FirstHopFirstSeen = min(FirstHop), FirstHopLastSeen = max(FirstHop) by Account, FirstComputer, FirstIPAddress, SecondHop, SecondComputer,\nSecondIPAddress, AccountType, Activity, LogonTypeName, ProcessName\n| extend AccountName = tostring(split(Account, @\"\\\")[1]), AccountNTDomain = tostring(split(Account, @\"\\\")[0])\n| extend HostName1 = tostring(split(FirstComputer, \".\")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(FirstComputer, '.'))\n| extend HostNameDomain1 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(FirstComputer, DomainIndex + 1), FirstComputer)\n| extend HostName2 = tostring(split(SecondComputer, \".\")[0]), DomainIndex = toint(indexof(SecondComputer, '.'))\n| extend HostNameDomain2 = iff(DomainIndex != -1, substring(SecondComputer, DomainIndex + 1), SecondComputer)\n| project-away DomainIndex\n",
        "queryFrequency": "P1D",
        "queryPeriod": "P8D",
        "severity": "Medium",
        "suppressionDuration": "PT1H",
        "suppressionEnabled": false,
        "tactics": [
          "LateralMovement"
        ],
        "techniques": [
          "T1021"
        ],
        "templateVersion": "1.2.6",
        "triggerOperator": "GreaterThan",
        "triggerThreshold": 0
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers/alertRules"
    }
  ]
}