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Detect excessive NXDOMAIN DNS queries - Anomaly based ASIM DNS Solution

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Id02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0
RulenameDetect excessive NXDOMAIN DNS queries - Anomaly based (ASIM DNS Solution)
DescriptionThis rule makes use of the series decompose anomaly method to generate an alert when client requests excessive amount of DNS queries to non-existent domains. This helps in identifying possible C2 communications. It utilizes ASIM normalization and is applied to any source that supports the ASIM DNS schema.
SeverityMedium
TacticsCommandAndControl
TechniquesT1568
T1008
KindScheduled
Query frequency1d
Query period14d
Trigger threshold0
Trigger operatorgt
Source Urihttps://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/DNS Essentials/Analytic Rules/ExcessiveNXDOMAINDNSQueriesAnomalyBased.yaml
Version1.0.2
Arm template02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0.json
Deploy To Azure
let threshold = 2.5;
let min_t = ago(14d);
let max_t = now();
let dt = 1d;
let summarizationexist = (
  union isfuzzy=true 
      (
      DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL
      | where EventTime_t > ago(1d) 
      | project v = int(2)
      ),
      (
      print int(1) 
      | project v = print_0
      )
  | summarize maxv = max(v)
  | extend sumexist = (maxv > 1)
  );
let allData = union isfuzzy=true
      (
      (datatable(exists: int, sumexist: bool)[1, false]
      | join (summarizationexist) on sumexist)
      | join (
          _Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=todatetime(min_t), endtime=max_t)
          | summarize Count=count() by SrcIpAddr, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h)
          | extend EventTime = TimeGenerated, Count = toint(Count), exists=int(1)
          )
          on exists
      | project-away exists, maxv, sum*
      ),
      (
      DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL
      | where EventTime_t > min_t and EventResultDetails_s == 'NXDOMAIN'
      | summarize Count=toint(sum(count__d)) by SrcIpAddr=SrcIpAddr_s, bin(EventTime=EventTime_t, 1h)
      );
allData
| make-series EventCount=sum(Count) on EventTime from min_t to max_t step dt by SrcIpAddr
| extend (anomalies, score, baseline) = series_decompose_anomalies(EventCount, threshold, -1, 'linefit')
| mv-expand anomalies, score, baseline, EventTime, EventCount
| extend
  anomalies = toint(anomalies),
  score = toint(score),
  baseline = toint(baseline),
  EventTime = todatetime(EventTime),
  Total = tolong(EventCount)
| where EventTime >= ago(dt)
| where score >= threshold * 2
| join kind=inner(_Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=ago(dt), endtime=max_t)
  | summarize DNSQueries = make_set(DnsQuery) by SrcIpAddr)
  on SrcIpAddr
| project-away SrcIpAddr1
queryFrequency: 1d
customDetails:
  Total: Total
  DNSQueries: DNSQueries
  baseline: baseline
  AnomalyScore: score
severity: Medium
OriginalUri: https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/DNS Essentials/Analytic Rules/ExcessiveNXDOMAINDNSQueriesAnomalyBased.yaml
entityMappings:
- fieldMappings:
  - columnName: SrcIpAddr
    identifier: Address
  entityType: IP
id: 02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0
name: Detect excessive NXDOMAIN DNS queries - Anomaly based (ASIM DNS Solution)
query: |
  let threshold = 2.5;
  let min_t = ago(14d);
  let max_t = now();
  let dt = 1d;
  let summarizationexist = (
    union isfuzzy=true 
        (
        DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL
        | where EventTime_t > ago(1d) 
        | project v = int(2)
        ),
        (
        print int(1) 
        | project v = print_0
        )
    | summarize maxv = max(v)
    | extend sumexist = (maxv > 1)
    );
  let allData = union isfuzzy=true
        (
        (datatable(exists: int, sumexist: bool)[1, false]
        | join (summarizationexist) on sumexist)
        | join (
            _Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=todatetime(min_t), endtime=max_t)
            | summarize Count=count() by SrcIpAddr, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h)
            | extend EventTime = TimeGenerated, Count = toint(Count), exists=int(1)
            )
            on exists
        | project-away exists, maxv, sum*
        ),
        (
        DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL
        | where EventTime_t > min_t and EventResultDetails_s == 'NXDOMAIN'
        | summarize Count=toint(sum(count__d)) by SrcIpAddr=SrcIpAddr_s, bin(EventTime=EventTime_t, 1h)
        );
  allData
  | make-series EventCount=sum(Count) on EventTime from min_t to max_t step dt by SrcIpAddr
  | extend (anomalies, score, baseline) = series_decompose_anomalies(EventCount, threshold, -1, 'linefit')
  | mv-expand anomalies, score, baseline, EventTime, EventCount
  | extend
    anomalies = toint(anomalies),
    score = toint(score),
    baseline = toint(baseline),
    EventTime = todatetime(EventTime),
    Total = tolong(EventCount)
  | where EventTime >= ago(dt)
  | where score >= threshold * 2
  | join kind=inner(_Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=ago(dt), endtime=max_t)
    | summarize DNSQueries = make_set(DnsQuery) by SrcIpAddr)
    on SrcIpAddr
  | project-away SrcIpAddr1  
tags:
- Schema: ASimDns
  SchemaVersion: 0.1.6
queryPeriod: 14d
eventGroupingSettings:
  aggregationKind: AlertPerResult
tactics:
- CommandAndControl
version: 1.0.2
kind: Scheduled
relevantTechniques:
- T1568
- T1008
triggerThreshold: 0
status: Available
requiredDataConnectors: []
description: |
    'This rule makes use of the series decompose anomaly method to generate an alert when client requests excessive amount of DNS queries to non-existent domains. This helps in identifying possible C2 communications. It utilizes [ASIM](https://aka.ms/AboutASIM) normalization and is applied to any source that supports the ASIM DNS schema.'
alertDetailsOverride:
  alertDescriptionFormat: |-
    This client is generating excessive amount of DNS queries for non-existent domains. This can be an indication of possible C2 communications.

    Baseline for 'NXDOMAIN' error count for this client: '{{baseline}}'

    Current 'NXDOMAIN' error count for this client: '{{Total}}'

    DNS queries requested by the client include:

    '{{DNSQueries}}'    
  alertDisplayNameFormat: "[Anomaly] Excessive NXDOMAIN DNS Queries has been detected from client IP: '{{SrcIpAddr}}'"
triggerOperator: gt
{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2019-04-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
    "workspace": {
      "type": "String"
    }
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "apiVersion": "2023-02-01-preview",
      "id": "[concat(resourceId('Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers', parameters('workspace'), 'Microsoft.SecurityInsights'),'/alertRules/02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0')]",
      "kind": "Scheduled",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('workspace'),'/Microsoft.SecurityInsights/02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0')]",
      "properties": {
        "alertDetailsOverride": {
          "alertDescriptionFormat": "This client is generating excessive amount of DNS queries for non-existent domains. This can be an indication of possible C2 communications.\n\nBaseline for 'NXDOMAIN' error count for this client: '{{baseline}}'\n\nCurrent 'NXDOMAIN' error count for this client: '{{Total}}'\n\nDNS queries requested by the client include:\n\n'{{DNSQueries}}'",
          "alertDisplayNameFormat": "[Anomaly] Excessive NXDOMAIN DNS Queries has been detected from client IP: '{{SrcIpAddr}}'"
        },
        "alertRuleTemplateName": "02f23312-1a33-4390-8b80-f7cd4df4dea0",
        "customDetails": {
          "AnomalyScore": "score",
          "baseline": "baseline",
          "DNSQueries": "DNSQueries",
          "Total": "Total"
        },
        "description": "'This rule makes use of the series decompose anomaly method to generate an alert when client requests excessive amount of DNS queries to non-existent domains. This helps in identifying possible C2 communications. It utilizes [ASIM](https://aka.ms/AboutASIM) normalization and is applied to any source that supports the ASIM DNS schema.'\n",
        "displayName": "Detect excessive NXDOMAIN DNS queries - Anomaly based (ASIM DNS Solution)",
        "enabled": true,
        "entityMappings": [
          {
            "entityType": "IP",
            "fieldMappings": [
              {
                "columnName": "SrcIpAddr",
                "identifier": "Address"
              }
            ]
          }
        ],
        "eventGroupingSettings": {
          "aggregationKind": "AlertPerResult"
        },
        "OriginalUri": "https://github.com/Azure/Azure-Sentinel/blob/master/Solutions/DNS Essentials/Analytic Rules/ExcessiveNXDOMAINDNSQueriesAnomalyBased.yaml",
        "query": "let threshold = 2.5;\nlet min_t = ago(14d);\nlet max_t = now();\nlet dt = 1d;\nlet summarizationexist = (\n  union isfuzzy=true \n      (\n      DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL\n      | where EventTime_t > ago(1d) \n      | project v = int(2)\n      ),\n      (\n      print int(1) \n      | project v = print_0\n      )\n  | summarize maxv = max(v)\n  | extend sumexist = (maxv > 1)\n  );\nlet allData = union isfuzzy=true\n      (\n      (datatable(exists: int, sumexist: bool)[1, false]\n      | join (summarizationexist) on sumexist)\n      | join (\n          _Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=todatetime(min_t), endtime=max_t)\n          | summarize Count=count() by SrcIpAddr, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h)\n          | extend EventTime = TimeGenerated, Count = toint(Count), exists=int(1)\n          )\n          on exists\n      | project-away exists, maxv, sum*\n      ),\n      (\n      DNS_Summarized_Logs_ip_CL\n      | where EventTime_t > min_t and EventResultDetails_s == 'NXDOMAIN'\n      | summarize Count=toint(sum(count__d)) by SrcIpAddr=SrcIpAddr_s, bin(EventTime=EventTime_t, 1h)\n      );\nallData\n| make-series EventCount=sum(Count) on EventTime from min_t to max_t step dt by SrcIpAddr\n| extend (anomalies, score, baseline) = series_decompose_anomalies(EventCount, threshold, -1, 'linefit')\n| mv-expand anomalies, score, baseline, EventTime, EventCount\n| extend\n  anomalies = toint(anomalies),\n  score = toint(score),\n  baseline = toint(baseline),\n  EventTime = todatetime(EventTime),\n  Total = tolong(EventCount)\n| where EventTime >= ago(dt)\n| where score >= threshold * 2\n| join kind=inner(_Im_Dns(responsecodename='NXDOMAIN', starttime=ago(dt), endtime=max_t)\n  | summarize DNSQueries = make_set(DnsQuery) by SrcIpAddr)\n  on SrcIpAddr\n| project-away SrcIpAddr1\n",
        "queryFrequency": "P1D",
        "queryPeriod": "P14D",
        "severity": "Medium",
        "status": "Available",
        "suppressionDuration": "PT1H",
        "suppressionEnabled": false,
        "tactics": [
          "CommandAndControl"
        ],
        "tags": [
          {
            "Schema": "ASimDns",
            "SchemaVersion": "0.1.6"
          }
        ],
        "techniques": [
          "T1008",
          "T1568"
        ],
        "templateVersion": "1.0.2",
        "triggerOperator": "GreaterThan",
        "triggerThreshold": 0
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/providers/alertRules"
    }
  ]
}